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Sysadmin Tip: Every linux program has help flag

Discussion in 'System Administration' started by eva2000, Jul 8, 2017.

  1. eva2000

    eva2000 Administrator Staff Member

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    May 24, 2014
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    Nginx 1.13.x
    MariaDB 5.5
    Most linux commands have a --help, -h, -help flag which gives you a run down of options available.

    i.e.
    Code (Text):
    php -h
    Usage: php [options] [-f] <file> [--] [args...]
       php [options] -r <code> [--] [args...]
       php [options] [-B <begin_code>] -R <code> [-E <end_code>] [--] [args...]
       php [options] [-B <begin_code>] -F <file> [-E <end_code>] [--] [args...]
       php [options] -S <addr>:<port> [-t docroot]
       php [options] -- [args...]
       php [options] -a
    
      -a               Run as interactive shell
      -c <path>|<file> Look for php.ini file in this directory
      -n               No php.ini file will be used
      -d foo[=bar]     Define INI entry foo with value 'bar'
      -e               Generate extended information for debugger/profiler
      -f <file>        Parse and execute <file>.
      -h               This help
      -i               PHP information
      -l               Syntax check only (lint)
      -m               Show compiled in modules
      -r <code>        Run PHP <code> without using script tags <?..?>
      -B <begin_code>  Run PHP <begin_code> before processing input lines
      -R <code>        Run PHP <code> for every input line
      -F <file>        Parse and execute <file> for every input line
      -E <end_code>    Run PHP <end_code> after processing all input lines
      -H               Hide any passed arguments from external tools.
      -S <addr>:<port> Run with built-in web server.
      -t <docroot>     Specify document root <docroot> for built-in web server.
      -s               Output HTML syntax highlighted source.
      -v               Version number
      -w               Output source with stripped comments and whitespace.
      -z <file>        Load Zend extension <file>.
    
      args...          Arguments passed to script. Use -- args when first argument
                       starts with - or script is read from stdin
    
      --ini            Show configuration file names
    
      --rf <name>      Show information about function <name>.
      --rc <name>      Show information about class <name>.
      --re <name>      Show information about extension <name>.
      --rz <name>      Show information about Zend extension <name>.
      --ri <name>      Show configuration for extension <name>.
    

    Code (Text):
    nginx -h
    nginx version: nginx/1.13.2
    Usage: nginx [-?hvVtTq] [-s signal] [-c filename] [-p prefix] [-g directives]
    
    Options:
      -?,-h         : this help
      -v            : show version and exit
      -V            : show version and configure options then exit
      -t            : test configuration and exit
      -T            : test configuration, dump it and exit
      -q            : suppress non-error messages during configuration testing
      -s signal     : send signal to a master process: stop, quit, reopen, reload
      -p prefix     : set prefix path (default: /usr/local/nginx/)
      -c filename   : set configuration file (default: /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf)
      -g directives : set global directives out of configuration file
    

    Code (Text):
    wget -h
    GNU Wget 1.19.1, a non-interactive network retriever.
    Usage: wget [OPTION]... [URL]...
    
    Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
    
    Startup:
      -V,  --version                   display the version of Wget and exit
      -h,  --help                      print this help
      -b,  --background                go to background after startup
      -e,  --execute=COMMAND           execute a `.wgetrc'-style command
    
    Logging and input file:
      -o,  --output-file=FILE          log messages to FILE
      -a,  --append-output=FILE        append messages to FILE
      -d,  --debug                     print lots of debugging information
      -q,  --quiet                     quiet (no output)
      -v,  --verbose                   be verbose (this is the default)
      -nv, --no-verbose                turn off verboseness, without being quiet
           --report-speed=TYPE         output bandwidth as TYPE.  TYPE can be bits
      -i,  --input-file=FILE           download URLs found in local or external FILE
      -F,  --force-html                treat input file as HTML
      -B,  --base=URL                  resolves HTML input-file links (-i -F)
                                         relative to URL
           --config=FILE               specify config file to use
           --no-config                 do not read any config file
           --rejected-log=FILE         log reasons for URL rejection to FILE
    
    Download:
      -t,  --tries=NUMBER              set number of retries to NUMBER (0 unlimits)
           --retry-connrefused         retry even if connection is refused
      -O,  --output-document=FILE      write documents to FILE
      -nc, --no-clobber                skip downloads that would download to
                                         existing files (overwriting them)
      -c,  --continue                  resume getting a partially-downloaded file
           --start-pos=OFFSET          start downloading from zero-based position OFFSET
           --progress=TYPE             select progress gauge type
           --show-progress             display the progress bar in any verbosity mode
      -N,  --timestamping              don't re-retrieve files unless newer than
                                         local
           --no-if-modified-since      don't use conditional if-modified-since get
                                         requests in timestamping mode
           --no-use-server-timestamps  don't set the local file's timestamp by
                                         the one on the server
      -S,  --server-response           print server response
           --spider                    don't download anything
      -T,  --timeout=SECONDS           set all timeout values to SECONDS
           --dns-timeout=SECS          set the DNS lookup timeout to SECS
           --connect-timeout=SECS      set the connect timeout to SECS
           --read-timeout=SECS         set the read timeout to SECS
      -w,  --wait=SECONDS              wait SECONDS between retrievals
           --waitretry=SECONDS         wait 1..SECONDS between retries of a retrieval
           --random-wait               wait from 0.5*WAIT...1.5*WAIT secs between retrievals
           --no-proxy                  explicitly turn off proxy
      -Q,  --quota=NUMBER              set retrieval quota to NUMBER
           --bind-address=ADDRESS      bind to ADDRESS (hostname or IP) on local host
           --limit-rate=RATE           limit download rate to RATE
           --no-dns-cache              disable caching DNS lookups
           --restrict-file-names=OS    restrict chars in file names to ones OS allows
           --ignore-case               ignore case when matching files/directories
      -4,  --inet4-only                connect only to IPv4 addresses
      -6,  --inet6-only                connect only to IPv6 addresses
           --prefer-family=FAMILY      connect first to addresses of specified family,
                                         one of IPv6, IPv4, or none
           --user=USER                 set both ftp and http user to USER
           --password=PASS             set both ftp and http password to PASS
           --ask-password              prompt for passwords
           --use-askpass=COMMAND       specify credential handler for requesting 
                                         username and password.  If no COMMAND is 
                                         specified the WGET_ASKPASS or the SSH_ASKPASS 
                                         environment variable is used.
           --no-iri                    turn off IRI support
           --local-encoding=ENC        use ENC as the local encoding for IRIs
           --remote-encoding=ENC       use ENC as the default remote encoding
           --unlink                    remove file before clobber
           --no-xattr                  turn off storage of metadata in extended file attributes
    
    Directories:
      -nd, --no-directories            don't create directories
      -x,  --force-directories         force creation of directories
      -nH, --no-host-directories       don't create host directories
           --protocol-directories      use protocol name in directories
      -P,  --directory-prefix=PREFIX   save files to PREFIX/..
           --cut-dirs=NUMBER           ignore NUMBER remote directory components
    
    HTTP options:
           --http-user=USER            set http user to USER
           --http-password=PASS        set http password to PASS
           --no-cache                  disallow server-cached data
           --default-page=NAME         change the default page name (normally
                                         this is 'index.html'.)
      -E,  --adjust-extension          save HTML/CSS documents with proper extensions
           --ignore-length             ignore 'Content-Length' header field
           --header=STRING             insert STRING among the headers
           --max-redirect              maximum redirections allowed per page
           --proxy-user=USER           set USER as proxy username
           --proxy-password=PASS       set PASS as proxy password
           --referer=URL               include 'Referer: URL' header in HTTP request
           --save-headers              save the HTTP headers to file
      -U,  --user-agent=AGENT          identify as AGENT instead of Wget/VERSION
           --no-http-keep-alive        disable HTTP keep-alive (persistent connections)
           --no-cookies                don't use cookies
           --load-cookies=FILE         load cookies from FILE before session
           --save-cookies=FILE         save cookies to FILE after session
           --keep-session-cookies      load and save session (non-permanent) cookies
           --post-data=STRING          use the POST method; send STRING as the data
           --post-file=FILE            use the POST method; send contents of FILE
           --method=HTTPMethod         use method "HTTPMethod" in the request
           --body-data=STRING          send STRING as data. --method MUST be set
           --body-file=FILE            send contents of FILE. --method MUST be set
           --content-disposition       honor the Content-Disposition header when
                                         choosing local file names (EXPERIMENTAL)
           --content-on-error          output the received content on server errors
           --auth-no-challenge         send Basic HTTP authentication information
                                         without first waiting for the server's
                                         challenge
    
    HTTPS (SSL/TLS) options:
           --secure-protocol=PR        choose secure protocol, one of auto, SSLv2,
                                         SSLv3, TLSv1 and PFS
           --https-only                only follow secure HTTPS links
           --no-check-certificate      don't validate the server's certificate
           --certificate=FILE          client certificate file
           --certificate-type=TYPE     client certificate type, PEM or DER
           --private-key=FILE          private key file
           --private-key-type=TYPE     private key type, PEM or DER
           --ca-certificate=FILE       file with the bundle of CAs
           --ca-directory=DIR          directory where hash list of CAs is stored
           --crl-file=FILE             file with bundle of CRLs
           --pinnedpubkey=FILE/HASHES  Public key (PEM/DER) file, or any number
                                       of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by
                                       'sha256//' and separated by ';', to verify
                                       peer against
           --random-file=FILE          file with random data for seeding the SSL PRNG
           --egd-file=FILE             file naming the EGD socket with random data
    
    HSTS options:
           --no-hsts                   disable HSTS
           --hsts-file                 path of HSTS database (will override default)
    
    FTP options:
           --ftp-user=USER             set ftp user to USER
           --ftp-password=PASS         set ftp password to PASS
           --no-remove-listing         don't remove '.listing' files
           --no-glob                   turn off FTP file name globbing
           --no-passive-ftp            disable the "passive" transfer mode
           --preserve-permissions      preserve remote file permissions
           --retr-symlinks             when recursing, get linked-to files (not dir)
    
    FTPS options:
           --ftps-implicit                 use implicit FTPS (default port is 990)
           --ftps-resume-ssl               resume the SSL/TLS session started in the control connection when
                                             opening a data connection
           --ftps-clear-data-connection    cipher the control channel only; all the data will be in plaintext
           --ftps-fallback-to-ftp          fall back to FTP if FTPS is not supported in the target server
    WARC options:
           --warc-file=FILENAME        save request/response data to a .warc.gz file
           --warc-header=STRING        insert STRING into the warcinfo record
           --warc-max-size=NUMBER      set maximum size of WARC files to NUMBER
           --warc-cdx                  write CDX index files
           --warc-dedup=FILENAME       do not store records listed in this CDX file
           --no-warc-compression       do not compress WARC files with GZIP
           --no-warc-digests           do not calculate SHA1 digests
           --no-warc-keep-log          do not store the log file in a WARC record
           --warc-tempdir=DIRECTORY    location for temporary files created by the
                                         WARC writer
    
    Recursive download:
      -r,  --recursive                 specify recursive download
      -l,  --level=NUMBER              maximum recursion depth (inf or 0 for infinite)
           --delete-after              delete files locally after downloading them
      -k,  --convert-links             make links in downloaded HTML or CSS point to
                                         local files
           --convert-file-only         convert the file part of the URLs only (usually known as the basename)
           --backups=N                 before writing file X, rotate up to N backup files
      -K,  --backup-converted          before converting file X, back up as X.orig
      -m,  --mirror                    shortcut for -N -r -l inf --no-remove-listing
      -p,  --page-requisites           get all images, etc. needed to display HTML page
           --strict-comments           turn on strict (SGML) handling of HTML comments
    
    Recursive accept/reject:
      -A,  --accept=LIST               comma-separated list of accepted extensions
      -R,  --reject=LIST               comma-separated list of rejected extensions
           --accept-regex=REGEX        regex matching accepted URLs
           --reject-regex=REGEX        regex matching rejected URLs
           --regex-type=TYPE           regex type (posix|pcre)
      -D,  --domains=LIST              comma-separated list of accepted domains
           --exclude-domains=LIST      comma-separated list of rejected domains
           --follow-ftp                follow FTP links from HTML documents
           --follow-tags=LIST          comma-separated list of followed HTML tags
           --ignore-tags=LIST          comma-separated list of ignored HTML tags
      -H,  --span-hosts                go to foreign hosts when recursive
      -L,  --relative                  follow relative links only
      -I,  --include-directories=LIST  list of allowed directories
           --trust-server-names        use the name specified by the redirection
                                         URL's last component
      -X,  --exclude-directories=LIST  list of excluded directories
      -np, --no-parent                 don't ascend to the parent directory
    
    Mail bug reports and suggestions to <bug-wget@gnu.org>
    

    Code (Text):
    curl --help
    Usage: curl [options...] <url>
         --abstract-unix-socket <path> Connect via abstract Unix domain socket
         --anyauth       Pick any authentication method
     -a, --append        Append to target file when uploading
         --basic         Use HTTP Basic Authentication
         --cacert <CA certificate> CA certificate to verify peer against
         --capath <dir>  CA directory to verify peer against
     -E, --cert <certificate[:password]> Client certificate file and password
         --cert-status   Verify the status of the server certificate
         --cert-type <type> Certificate file type (DER/PEM/ENG)
         --ciphers <list of ciphers> SSL ciphers to use
         --compressed    Request compressed response
     -K, --config <file> Read config from a file
         --connect-timeout <seconds> Maximum time allowed for connection
         --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2> Connect to host
     -C, --continue-at <offset> Resumed transfer offset
     -b, --cookie <data> Send cookies from string/file
     -c, --cookie-jar <filename> Write cookies to <filename> after operation
         --create-dirs   Create necessary local directory hierarchy
         --crlf          Convert LF to CRLF in upload
         --crlfile <file> Get a CRL list in PEM format from the given file
     -d, --data <data>   HTTP POST data
         --data-ascii <data> HTTP POST ASCII data
         --data-binary <data> HTTP POST binary data
         --data-raw <data> HTTP POST data, '@' allowed
         --data-urlencode <data> HTTP POST data url encoded
         --delegation <LEVEL> GSS-API delegation permission
         --digest        Use HTTP Digest Authentication
     -q, --disable       Disable .curlrc
         --disable-eprt  Inhibit using EPRT or LPRT
         --disable-epsv  Inhibit using EPSV
         --dns-interface <interface> Interface to use for DNS requests
         --dns-ipv4-addr <address> IPv4 address to use for DNS requests
         --dns-ipv6-addr <address> IPv6 address to use for DNS requests
         --dns-servers <addresses> DNS server addrs to use
     -D, --dump-header <filename> Write the received headers to <filename>
         --egd-file <file> EGD socket path for random data
         --engine <name> Crypto engine to use
         --expect100-timeout <seconds> How long to wait for 100-continue
     -f, --fail          Fail silently (no output at all) on HTTP errors
         --fail-early    Fail on first transfer error, do not continue
         --false-start   Enable TLS False Start
     -F, --form <name=content> Specify HTTP multipart POST data
         --form-string <name=string> Specify HTTP multipart POST data
         --ftp-account <data> Account data string
         --ftp-alternative-to-user <command> String to replace USER [name]
         --ftp-create-dirs Create the remote dirs if not present
         --ftp-method <method> Control CWD usage
         --ftp-pasv      Use PASV/EPSV instead of PORT
     -P, --ftp-port <address> Use PORT instead of PASV
         --ftp-pret      Send PRET before PASV
         --ftp-skip-pasv-ip Skip the IP address for PASV
         --ftp-ssl-ccc   Send CCC after authenticating
         --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive> Set CCC mode
         --ftp-ssl-control Require SSL/TLS for FTP login, clear for transfer
     -G, --get           Put the post data in the URL and use GET
     -g, --globoff       Disable URL sequences and ranges using {} and []
     -I, --head          Show document info only
     -H, --header <header> Pass custom header LINE to server
     -h, --help          This help text
         --hostpubmd5 <md5> Acceptable MD5 hash of the host public key
     -0, --http1.0       Use HTTP 1.0
         --http1.1       Use HTTP 1.1
         --http2         Use HTTP 2
         --http2-prior-knowledge Use HTTP 2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade
         --ignore-content-length Ignore the size of the remote resource
     -i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output
     -k, --insecure      Allow insecure server connections when using SSL
         --interface <name> Use network INTERFACE (or address)
     -4, --ipv4          Resolve names to IPv4 addresses
     -6, --ipv6          Resolve names to IPv6 addresses
     -j, --junk-session-cookies Ignore session cookies read from file
         --keepalive-time <seconds> Interval time for keepalive probes
         --key <key>     Private key file name
         --key-type <type> Private key file type (DER/PEM/ENG)
         --krb <level>   Enable Kerberos with security <level>
         --libcurl <file> Dump libcurl equivalent code of this command line
         --limit-rate <speed> Limit transfer speed to RATE
     -l, --list-only     List only mode
         --local-port <num/range> Force use of RANGE for local port numbers
     -L, --location      Follow redirects
         --location-trusted Like --location, and send auth to other hosts
         --login-options <options> Server login options
         --mail-auth <address> Originator address of the original email
         --mail-from <address> Mail from this address
         --mail-rcpt <address> Mail from this address
     -M, --manual        Display the full manual
         --max-filesize <bytes> Maximum file size to download
         --max-redirs <num> Maximum number of redirects allowed
     -m, --max-time <time> Maximum time allowed for the transfer
         --metalink      Process given URLs as metalink XML file
         --negotiate     Use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication
     -n, --netrc         Must read .netrc for user name and password
         --netrc-file <filename> Specify FILE for netrc
         --netrc-optional Use either .netrc or URL
     -:, --next          Make next URL use its separate set of options
         --no-alpn       Disable the ALPN TLS extension
     -N, --no-buffer     Disable buffering of the output stream
         --no-keepalive  Disable TCP keepalive on the connection
         --no-npn        Disable the NPN TLS extension
         --no-sessionid  Disable SSL session-ID reusing
         --noproxy <no-proxy-list> List of hosts which do not use proxy
         --ntlm          Use HTTP NTLM authentication
         --ntlm-wb       Use HTTP NTLM authentication with winbind
         --oauth2-bearer OAuth 2 Bearer Token
     -o, --output <file> Write to file instead of stdout
         --pass <phrase> Pass phrase for the private key
         --path-as-is    Do not squash .. sequences in URL path
         --pinnedpubkey <hashes> FILE/HASHES Public key to verify peer against
         --post301       Do not switch to GET after following a 301
         --post302       Do not switch to GET after following a 302
         --post303       Do not switch to GET after following a 303
         --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port] Use this proxy first
     -#, --progress-bar  Display transfer progress as a bar
         --proto <protocols> Enable/disable PROTOCOLS
         --proto-default <protocol> Use PROTOCOL for any URL missing a scheme
         --proto-redir <protocols> Enable/disable PROTOCOLS on redirect
     -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port] Use this proxy
         --proxy-anyauth Pick any proxy authentication method
         --proxy-basic   Use Basic authentication on the proxy
         --proxy-cacert <file> CA certificate to verify peer against for proxy
         --proxy-capath <dir> CA directory to verify peer against for proxy
         --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]> Set client certificate for proxy
         --proxy-cert-type <type> Client certificate type for HTTS proxy
         --proxy-ciphers <list> SSL ciphers to use for proxy
         --proxy-crlfile <file> Set a CRL list for proxy
         --proxy-digest  Use Digest authentication on the proxy
         --proxy-header <header> Pass custom header LINE to proxy
         --proxy-insecure Do HTTPS proxy connections without verifying the proxy
         --proxy-key <key> Private key for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-key-type <type> Private key file type for proxy
         --proxy-negotiate Use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication on the proxy
         --proxy-ntlm    Use NTLM authentication on the proxy
         --proxy-pass <phrase> Pass phrase for the private key for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-service-name <name> SPNEGO proxy service name
         --proxy-ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw for interop for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-tlsauthtype <type> TLS authentication type for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-tlspassword <string> TLS password for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-tlsuser <name> TLS username for HTTPS proxy
         --proxy-tlsv1   Use TLSv1 for HTTPS proxy
     -U, --proxy-user <user:password> Proxy user and password
         --proxy1.0 <host[:port]> Use HTTP/1.0 proxy on given port
     -p, --proxytunnel   Operate through a HTTP proxy tunnel (using CONNECT)
         --pubkey <key>  SSH Public key file name
     -Q, --quote         Send command(s) to server before transfer
         --random-file <file> File for reading random data from
     -r, --range <range> Retrieve only the bytes within RANGE
         --raw           Do HTTP "raw"; no transfer decoding
     -e, --referer <URL> Referrer URL
     -J, --remote-header-name Use the header-provided filename
     -O, --remote-name   Write output to a file named as the remote file
         --remote-name-all Use the remote file name for all URLs
     -R, --remote-time   Set the remote file's time on the local output
     -X, --request <command> Specify request command to use
         --resolve <host:port:address> Resolve the host+port to this address
         --retry <num>   Retry request if transient problems occur
         --retry-connrefused Retry on connection refused (use with --retry)
         --retry-delay <seconds> Wait time between retries
         --retry-max-time <seconds> Retry only within this period
         --sasl-ir       Enable initial response in SASL authentication
         --service-name <name> SPNEGO service name
     -S, --show-error    Show error even when -s is used
     -s, --silent        Silent mode
         --socks4 <host[:port]> SOCKS4 proxy on given host + port
         --socks4a <host[:port]> SOCKS4a proxy on given host + port
         --socks5 <host[:port]> SOCKS5 proxy on given host + port
         --socks5-gssapi-nec Compatibility with NEC SOCKS5 server
         --socks5-gssapi-service <name> SOCKS5 proxy service name for GSS-API
         --socks5-hostname <host[:port]> SOCKS5 proxy, pass host name to proxy
     -Y, --speed-limit <speed> Stop transfers slower than this
     -y, --speed-time <seconds> Trigger 'speed-limit' abort after this time
         --ssl           Try SSL/TLS
         --ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw to improve interop
         --ssl-no-revoke Disable cert revocation checks (WinSSL)
         --ssl-reqd      Require SSL/TLS
     -2, --sslv2         Use SSLv2
     -3, --sslv3         Use SSLv3
         --stderr        Where to redirect stderr
         --suppress-connect-headers Suppress proxy CONNECT response headers
         --tcp-fastopen  Use TCP Fast Open
         --tcp-nodelay   Use the TCP_NODELAY option
     -t, --telnet-option <opt=val> Set telnet option
         --tftp-blksize <value> Set TFTP BLKSIZE option
         --tftp-no-options Do not send any TFTP options
     -z, --time-cond <time> Transfer based on a time condition
         --tls-max <VERSION> Use TLSv1.0 or greater
         --tlsauthtype <type> TLS authentication type
         --tlspassword   TLS password
         --tlsuser <name> TLS user name
     -1, --tlsv1         Use TLSv1.0 or greater
         --tlsv1.0       Use TLSv1.0
         --tlsv1.1       Use TLSv1.1
         --tlsv1.2       Use TLSv1.2
         --tlsv1.3       Use TLSv1.3
         --tr-encoding   Request compressed transfer encoding
         --trace <file>  Write a debug trace to FILE
         --trace-ascii <file> Like --trace, but without hex output
         --trace-time    Add time stamps to trace/verbose output
         --unix-socket <path> Connect through this Unix domain socket
     -T, --upload-file <file> Transfer local FILE to destination
         --url <url>     URL to work with
     -B, --use-ascii     Use ASCII/text transfer
     -u, --user <user:password> Server user and password
     -A, --user-agent <name> Send User-Agent <name> to server
     -v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
     -V, --version       Show version number and quit
     -w, --write-out <format> Use output FORMAT after completion
         --xattr         Store metadata in extended file attributes
    

    Code (Text):
    mysqldump --help
    mysqldump  Ver 10.16 Distrib 10.1.25-MariaDB, for Linux (x86_64)
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
    
    Dumping structure and contents of MySQL databases and tables.
    Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]
    OR     mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
    OR     mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]
    
    Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
    /etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf 
    The following groups are read: mysqldump client client-server client-mariadb
    The following options may be given as the first argument:
    --print-defaults        Print the program argument list and exit.
    --no-defaults           Don't read default options from any option file.
    --defaults-file=#       Only read default options from the given file #.
    --defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read.
    
      -A, --all-databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases
                          with all databases selected.
      -Y, --all-tablespaces 
                          Dump all the tablespaces.
      -y, --no-tablespaces 
                          Do not dump any tablespace information.
      --add-drop-database Add a DROP DATABASE before each create.
      --add-drop-table    Add a DROP TABLE before each create.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-drop-table to disable.)
      --add-locks         Add locks around INSERT statements.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-locks to disable.)
      --allow-keywords    Allow creation of column names that are keywords.
      --apply-slave-statements 
                          Adds 'STOP SLAVE' prior to 'CHANGE MASTER' and 'START
                          SLAVE' to bottom of dump.
      --character-sets-dir=name 
                          Directory for character set files.
      -i, --comments      Write additional information.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-comments to disable.)
      --compatible=name   Change the dump to be compatible with a given mode. By
                          default tables are dumped in a format optimized for
                          MySQL. Legal modes are: ansi, mysql323, mysql40,
                          postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options,
                          no_table_options, no_field_options. One can use several
                          modes separated by commas. Note: Requires MySQL server
                          version 4.1.0 or higher. This option is ignored with
                          earlier server versions.
      --compact           Give less verbose output (useful for debugging). Disables
                          structure comments and header/footer constructs.  Enables
                          options --skip-add-drop-table --skip-add-locks
                          --skip-comments --skip-disable-keys --skip-set-charset.
      -c, --complete-insert 
                          Use complete insert statements.
      -C, --compress      Use compression in server/client protocol.
      -a, --create-options 
                          Include all MySQL specific create options.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-create-options to disable.)
      -B, --databases     Dump several databases. Note the difference in usage; in
                          this case no tables are given. All name arguments are
                          regarded as database names. 'USE db_name;' will be
                          included in the output.
      -#, --debug[=#]     This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit.
      --debug-check       Check memory and open file usage at exit.
      --debug-info        Print some debug info at exit.
      --default-character-set=name 
                          Set the default character set.
      --delayed-insert    Insert rows with INSERT DELAYED.
      --delete-master-logs 
                          Delete logs on master after backup. This automatically
                          enables --master-data.
      -K, --disable-keys  '/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name DISABLE KEYS */; and
                          '/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name ENABLE KEYS */; will be put
                          in the output.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-disable-keys to disable.)
      --dump-slave[=#]    This causes the binary log position and filename of the
                          master to be appended to the dumped data output. Setting
                          the value to 1, will printit as a CHANGE MASTER command
                          in the dumped data output; if equal to 2, that command
                          will be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will
                          turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
                          specified too (in which case a global read lock is only
                          taken a short time at the beginning of the dump - don't
                          forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all
                          cases any action on logs will happen at the exact moment
                          of the dump.Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.
      -E, --events        Dump events.
      -e, --extended-insert 
                          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several
                          VALUES lists.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-extended-insert to disable.)
      --fields-terminated-by=name 
                          Fields in the output file are terminated by the given
                          string.
      --fields-enclosed-by=name 
                          Fields in the output file are enclosed by the given
                          character.
      --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=name 
                          Fields in the output file are optionally enclosed by the
                          given character.
      --fields-escaped-by=name 
                          Fields in the output file are escaped by the given
                          character.
      -F, --flush-logs    Flush logs file in server before starting dump. Note that
                          if you dump many databases at once (using the option
                          --databases= or --all-databases), the logs will be
                          flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
                          using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: in this case
                          the logs will be flushed only once, corresponding to the
                          moment all tables are locked. So if you want your dump
                          and the log flush to happen at the same exact moment you
                          should use --lock-all-tables or --master-data with
                          --flush-logs.
      --flush-privileges  Emit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping the mysql
                          database.  This option should be used any time the dump
                          contains the mysql database and any other database that
                          depends on the data in the mysql database for proper
                          restore. 
      -f, --force         Continue even if we get an SQL error.
      --gtid              Used together with --master-data=1 or --dump-slave=1.When
                          enabled, the output from those options will set the GTID
                          position instead of the binlog file and offset; the
                          file/offset will appear only as a comment. When disabled,
                          the GTID position will still appear in the output, but
                          only commented.
      -?, --help          Display this help message and exit.
      --hex-blob          Dump binary strings (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB) in
                          hexadecimal format.
      -h, --host=name     Connect to host.
      --ignore-table=name Do not dump the specified table. To specify more than one
                          table to ignore, use the directive multiple times, once
                          for each table.  Each table must be specified with both
                          database and table names, e.g.,
                          --ignore-table=database.table.
      --include-master-host-port 
                          Adds 'MASTER_HOST=<host>, MASTER_PORT=<port>' to 'CHANGE
                          MASTER TO..' in dump produced with --dump-slave.
      --insert-ignore     Insert rows with INSERT IGNORE.
      --lines-terminated-by=name 
                          Lines in the output file are terminated by the given
                          string.
      -x, --lock-all-tables 
                          Locks all tables across all databases. This is achieved
                          by taking a global read lock for the duration of the
                          whole dump. Automatically turns --single-transaction and
                          --lock-tables off.
      -l, --lock-tables   Lock all tables for read.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-lock-tables to disable.)
      --log-error=name    Append warnings and errors to given file.
      --log-queries       When restoring the dump, the server will, if logging
                          turned on, log the queries to the general and slow query
                          log.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-log-queries to disable.)
      --master-data[=#]   This causes the binary log position and filename to be
                          appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a
                          CHANGE MASTER command; if equal to 2, that command will
                          be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will turn
                          --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
                          specified too (on servers before MariaDB 5.3 this will
                          still take a global read lock for a short time at the
                          beginning of the dump; don't forget to read about
                          --single-transaction below). In all cases, any action on
                          logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump. Option
                          automatically turns --lock-tables off.
      --max-allowed-packet=# 
                          The maximum packet length to send to or receive from
                          server.
      --net-buffer-length=# 
                          The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication.
      --no-autocommit     Wrap tables with autocommit/commit statements.
      -n, --no-create-db  Suppress the CREATE DATABASE ... IF EXISTS statement that
                          normally is output for each dumped database if
                          --all-databases or --databases is given.
      -t, --no-create-info 
                          Don't write table creation info.
      -d, --no-data       No row information.
      --no-data-med       No row information for engines that Manage External Data
                          (MRG_MyISAM, MRG_ISAM, CONNECT, OQGRAPH, SPIDER, VP,
                          FEDERATED).
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-no-data-med to disable.)
      -N, --no-set-names  Same as --skip-set-charset.
      --opt               Same as --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options,
                          --quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset,
                          and --disable-keys. Enabled by default, disable with
                          --skip-opt.
      --order-by-primary  Sorts each table's rows by primary key, or first unique
                          key, if such a key exists.  Useful when dumping a MyISAM
                          table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make
                          the dump itself take considerably longer.
      -p, --password[=name] 
                          Password to use when connecting to server. If password is
                          not given it's solicited on the tty.
      -P, --port=#        Port number to use for connection.
      --protocol=name     The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe,
                          memory).
      -q, --quick         Don't buffer query, dump directly to stdout.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-quick to disable.)
      -Q, --quote-names   Quote table and column names with backticks (`).
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-quote-names to disable.)
      --replace           Use REPLACE INTO instead of INSERT INTO.
      -r, --result-file=name 
                          Direct output to a given file. This option should be used
                          in systems (e.g., DOS, Windows) that use carriage-return
                          linefeed pairs (\r\n) to separate text lines. This option
                          ensures that only a single newline is used.
      -R, --routines      Dump stored routines (functions and procedures).
      --set-charset       Add 'SET NAMES default_character_set' to the output.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-set-charset to disable.)
      --single-transaction 
                          Creates a consistent snapshot by dumping all tables in a
                          single transaction. Works ONLY for tables stored in
                          storage engines which support multiversioning (currently
                          only InnoDB does); the dump is NOT guaranteed to be
                          consistent for other storage engines. While a
                          --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a
                          valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log
                          position), no other connection should use the following
                          statements: ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE,
                          TRUNCATE TABLE, as consistent snapshot is not isolated
                          from them. Option automatically turns off --lock-tables.
      --dump-date         Put a dump date to the end of the output.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-dump-date to disable.)
      --skip-opt          Disable --opt. Disables --add-drop-table, --add-locks,
                          --create-options, --quick, --extended-insert,
                          --lock-tables, --set-charset, and --disable-keys.
      -S, --socket=name   The socket file to use for connection.
      --ssl               Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with
                          other flags).
      --ssl-ca=name       CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies
                          --ssl).
      --ssl-capath=name   CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
      --ssl-cert=name     X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).
      --ssl-cipher=name   SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).
      --ssl-key=name      X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).
      --ssl-crl=name      Certificate revocation list (implies --ssl).
      --ssl-crlpath=name  Certificate revocation list path (implies --ssl).
      --ssl-verify-server-cert 
                          Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against
                          hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by
                          default.
      -T, --tab=name      Create tab-separated textfile for each table to given
                          path. (Create .sql and .txt files.) NOTE: This only works
                          if mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld
                          server.
      --tables            Overrides option --databases (-B).
      --triggers          Dump triggers for each dumped table.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-triggers to disable.)
      --tz-utc            SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' at top of dump to allow dumping of
                          TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time
                          zones or data is being moved between servers with
                          different time zones.
                          (Defaults to on; use --skip-tz-utc to disable.)
      -u, --user=name     User for login if not current user.
      -v, --verbose       Print info about the various stages.
      -V, --version       Output version information and exit.
      -w, --where=name    Dump only selected records. Quotes are mandatory.
      -X, --xml           Dump a database as well formed XML.
      --plugin-dir=name   Directory for client-side plugins.
      --default-auth=name Default authentication client-side plugin to use.
    
    Variables (--variable-name=value)
    and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE}  Value (after reading options)
    --------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
    all-databases                     FALSE
    all-tablespaces                   FALSE
    no-tablespaces                    FALSE
    add-drop-database                 FALSE
    add-drop-table                    TRUE
    add-locks                         TRUE
    allow-keywords                    FALSE
    apply-slave-statements            FALSE
    character-sets-dir                (No default value)
    comments                          TRUE
    compatible                        (No default value)
    compact                           FALSE
    complete-insert                   FALSE
    compress                          FALSE
    create-options                    TRUE
    databases                         FALSE
    debug-check                       FALSE
    debug-info                        FALSE
    default-character-set             utf8
    delayed-insert                    FALSE
    delete-master-logs                FALSE
    disable-keys                      TRUE
    dump-slave                        0
    events                            FALSE
    extended-insert                   TRUE
    fields-terminated-by              (No default value)
    fields-enclosed-by                (No default value)
    fields-optionally-enclosed-by     (No default value)
    fields-escaped-by                 (No default value)
    flush-logs                        FALSE
    flush-privileges                  FALSE
    force                             FALSE
    gtid                              FALSE
    hex-blob                          FALSE
    host                              (No default value)
    include-master-host-port          FALSE
    insert-ignore                     FALSE
    lines-terminated-by               (No default value)
    lock-all-tables                   FALSE
    lock-tables                       TRUE
    log-error                         (No default value)
    log-queries                       TRUE
    master-data                       0
    max-allowed-packet                134217728
    net-buffer-length                 1046528
    no-autocommit                     FALSE
    no-create-db                      FALSE
    no-create-info                    FALSE
    no-data                           FALSE
    no-data-med                       TRUE
    order-by-primary                  FALSE
    port                              0
    quick                             TRUE
    quote-names                       TRUE
    replace                           FALSE
    routines                          FALSE
    set-charset                       TRUE
    single-transaction                FALSE
    dump-date                         TRUE
    socket                            /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
    ssl                               FALSE
    ssl-ca                            (No default value)
    ssl-capath                        (No default value)
    ssl-cert                          (No default value)
    ssl-cipher                        (No default value)
    ssl-key                           (No default value)
    ssl-crl                           (No default value)
    ssl-crlpath                       (No default value)
    ssl-verify-server-cert            FALSE
    tab                               (No default value)
    triggers                          TRUE
    tz-utc                            TRUE
    user                              root
    verbose                           FALSE
    where                             (No default value)
    plugin-dir                        (No default value)
    default-auth                      (No default value)
    
     
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  2. eva2000

    eva2000 Administrator Staff Member

    30,934
    6,911
    113
    May 24, 2014
    Brisbane, Australia
    Ratings:
    +10,407
    Local Time:
    12:37 PM
    Nginx 1.13.x
    MariaDB 5.5
    Code (Text):
    ls --help
    Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
    List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
    Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.
    
    Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
      -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
      -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
          --author               with -l, print the author of each file
      -b, --escape               print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
          --block-size=SIZE      scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g.,
                                   '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of
                                   1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
      -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
      -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                                   modification of file status information);
                                   with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
                                   otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
      -C                         list entries by columns
          --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto',
                                   or 'always' (the default); more info below
      -d, --directory            list directories themselves, not their contents
      -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
      -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
      -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
          --file-type            likewise, except do not append '*'
          --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                                   single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
          --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
      -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
          --group-directories-first
                                 group directories before files;
                                   can be augmented with a --sort option, but any
                                   use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
      -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
      -h, --human-readable       with -l, print sizes in human readable format
                                   (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
          --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
      -H, --dereference-command-line
                                 follow symbolic links listed on the command line
          --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
                                 follow each command line symbolic link
                                   that points to a directory
          --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                                   (overridden by -a or -A)
          --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                                   none (default), slash (-p),
                                   file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
      -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
      -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
      -k, --kibibytes            default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage
      -l                         use a long listing format
      -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                                   link, show information for the file the link
                                   references rather than for the link itself
      -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
      -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
      -N, --literal              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
                                   characters specially)
      -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
      -p, --indicator-style=slash
                                 append / indicator to directories
      -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of nongraphic characters
          --show-control-chars   show nongraphic characters as-is (the default,
                                   unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
      -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
          --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                                   literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
      -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
      -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
      -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
      -S                         sort by file size
          --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),
                                   time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
          --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of default
                                   modification time: atime or access or use (-u)
                                   ctime or status (-c); also use specified time
                                   as sort key if --sort=time
          --time-style=STYLE     with -l, show times using style STYLE:
                                   full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT;
                                   FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT
                                   is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies
                                   to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
                                   if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE
                                   takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
      -t                         sort by modification time, newest first
      -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
      -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time;
                                   with -l: show access time and sort by name;
                                   otherwise: sort by access time
      -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
      -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
      -w, --width=COLS           assume screen width instead of current value
      -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
      -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
      -1                         list one file per line
    
    SELinux options:
    
      --lcontext                 Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines
                                 will probably be too wide for most displays.
      -Z, --context              Display security context so it fits on most
                                 displays.  Displays only mode, user, group,
                                 security context and file name.
      --scontext                 Display only security context and file name.
          --help     display this help and exit
          --version  output version information and exit
    
    SIZE is an integer and optional unit (example: 10M is 10*1024*1024).  Units
    are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of 1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).
    
    Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
    with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
    standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
    variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.
    
    Exit status:
     0  if OK,
     1  if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
     2  if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).
    
    GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
    For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ls invocation'

    Code (Text):
    cp --help
    Usage: cp [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
      or:  cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
      or:  cp [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...
    Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.
    
    Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
      -a, --archive                same as -dR --preserve=all
          --attributes-only        don't copy the file data, just the attributes
          --backup[=CONTROL]       make a backup of each existing destination file
      -b                           like --backup but does not accept an argument
          --copy-contents          copy contents of special files when recursive
      -d                           same as --no-dereference --preserve=links
      -f, --force                  if an existing destination file cannot be
                                     opened, remove it and try again (this option
                                     is ignored when the -n option is also used)
      -i, --interactive            prompt before overwrite (overrides a previous -n
                                      option)
      -H                           follow command-line symbolic links in SOURCE
      -l, --link                   hard link files instead of copying
      -L, --dereference            always follow symbolic links in SOURCE
      -n, --no-clobber             do not overwrite an existing file (overrides
                                     a previous -i option)
      -P, --no-dereference         never follow symbolic links in SOURCE
      -p                           same as --preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps
          --preserve[=ATTR_LIST]   preserve the specified attributes (default:
                                     mode,ownership,timestamps), if possible
                                     additional attributes: context, links, xattr,
                                     all
      -c                           deprecated, same as --preserve=context
          --no-preserve=ATTR_LIST  don't preserve the specified attributes
          --parents                use full source file name under DIRECTORY
      -R, -r, --recursive          copy directories recursively
          --reflink[=WHEN]         control clone/CoW copies. See below
          --remove-destination     remove each existing destination file before
                                     attempting to open it (contrast with --force)
          --sparse=WHEN            control creation of sparse files. See below
          --strip-trailing-slashes  remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE
                                     argument
      -s, --symbolic-link          make symbolic links instead of copying
      -S, --suffix=SUFFIX          override the usual backup suffix
      -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY  copy all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY
      -T, --no-target-directory    treat DEST as a normal file
      -u, --update                 copy only when the SOURCE file is newer
                                     than the destination file or when the
                                     destination file is missing
      -v, --verbose                explain what is being done
      -x, --one-file-system        stay on this file system
      -Z                           set SELinux security context of destination
                                     file to default type
          --context[=CTX]          like -Z, or if CTX is specified then set the
                                     SELinux or SMACK security context to CTX
          --help     display this help and exit
          --version  output version information and exit
    
    By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the
    corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well.  That is the behavior
    selected by --sparse=auto.  Specify --sparse=always to create a sparse DEST
    file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes.
    Use --sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.
    
    When --reflink[=always] is specified, perform a lightweight copy, where the
    data blocks are copied only when modified.  If this is not possible the copy
    fails, or if --reflink=auto is specified, fall back to a standard copy.
    
    The backup suffix is '~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
    The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through
    the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.  Here are the values:
    
      none, off       never make backups (even if --backup is given)
      numbered, t     make numbered backups
      existing, nil   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
      simple, never   always make simple backups
    
    As a special case, cp makes a backup of SOURCE when the force and backup
    options are given and SOURCE and DEST are the same name for an existing,
    regular file.
    
    GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
    For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'cp invocation'
    
     
  3. eva2000

    eva2000 Administrator Staff Member

    30,934
    6,911
    113
    May 24, 2014
    Brisbane, Australia
    Ratings:
    +10,407
    Local Time:
    12:37 PM
    Nginx 1.13.x
    MariaDB 5.5
    rsync
    Code (Text):
    rsync -h
    rsync  version 3.0.9  protocol version 30
    Copyright (C) 1996-2011 by Andrew Tridgell, Wayne Davison, and others.
    Web site: http://rsync.samba.org/
    Capabilities:
        64-bit files, 64-bit inums, 64-bit timestamps, 64-bit long ints,
        socketpairs, hardlinks, symlinks, IPv6, batchfiles, inplace,
        append, ACLs, xattrs, iconv, symtimes
    
    rsync comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.  This is free software, and you
    are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.  See the GNU
    General Public Licence for details.
    
    rsync is a file transfer program capable of efficient remote update
    via a fast differencing algorithm.
    
    Usage: rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST
      or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST
      or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST
      or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST
      or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]
      or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]
      or   rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]
    The ':' usages connect via remote shell, while '::' & 'rsync://' usages connect
    to an rsync daemon, and require SRC or DEST to start with a module name.
    
    Options
     -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
     -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
         --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see manpage caveat)
     -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
     -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
         --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
     -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
     -R, --relative              use relative path names
         --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
     -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
         --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
         --suffix=SUFFIX         set backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
     -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
         --inplace               update destination files in-place (SEE MAN PAGE)
         --append                append data onto shorter files
         --append-verify         like --append, but with old data in file checksum
     -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
     -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
     -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
         --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
         --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the source tree
     -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to a dir into referent dir
     -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
     -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
     -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
     -E, --executability         preserve the file's executability
         --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
     -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
     -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
     -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
     -g, --group                 preserve group
         --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
         --copy-devices          copy device contents as regular file
         --specials              preserve special files
     -D                          same as --devices --specials
     -t, --times                 preserve modification times
     -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
         --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
         --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
     -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
     -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
     -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without delta-xfer algorithm)
     -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
     -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
     -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
         --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on the remote machine
         --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
         --ignore-existing       skip updating files that already exist on receiver
         --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dirs)
         --del                   an alias for --delete-during
         --delete                delete extraneous files from destination dirs
         --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer, not during
         --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
         --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
         --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
         --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from destination dirs
         --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
         --force                 force deletion of directories even if not empty
         --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
         --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
         --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
         --partial               keep partially transferred files
         --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
         --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at transfer's end
     -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from the file-list
         --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
         --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
         --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
     -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match in size and mod-time
         --size-only             skip files that match in size
         --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
     -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
     -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
         --compare-dest=DIR      also compare destination files relative to DIR
         --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
         --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
     -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
         --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
         --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with a suffix in LIST
     -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files the same way CVS does
     -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
     -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                 repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
         --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
         --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
         --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
         --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
         --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
     -0, --from0                 all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
     -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; only wildcard special-chars
         --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
         --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
         --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
         --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
         --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
     -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
     -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
         --progress              show progress during transfer
     -P                          same as --partial --progress
     -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
         --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
         --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
         --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
         --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
         --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
         --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
         --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
         --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating destination
         --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
         --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
         --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
         --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
     -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
     -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
         --version               print version number
    (-h) --help                  show this help (-h is --help only if used alone)
    
    Use "rsync --daemon --help" to see the daemon-mode command-line options.
    Please see the rsync(1) and rsyncd.conf(5) man pages for full documentation.
    See http://rsync.samba.org/ for updates, bug reports, and answers